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Disease Control

A communicable disease is an infectious disease transmissible from person to person, directly or indirectly. 

In order for an infection in a person to occur there needs to be: 

  • an infecting organism bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungus, or helminth (parasitic worms) 
  • a person who is susceptible to the infection – has no antibodies to that specific organism 
  • environmental factors that bring the infectious organism and the susceptible person together

Sources of Infection and Transmission routes

Direct contact – from person to person 

  • touching, biting, kissing, sexual contact or droplet spread from coughs and sneezes, spitting or talking
  • infecting oneself with the body’s own germs
  • hand to mouth transmission also known as faeco-oral transmission
  • blood borne 

Indirect contact – from the environment 

The infecting organism can get into the environment in a number of ways 

  • surfaces or food contaminated by the person with the infection through poor hygiene after toilet use or after coughing and sneezing
  • insects, pests, animals, domestic pets
  • blood borne e.g. through needles
  • poor food preparation, cooking and/or storage
  • contaminated food/water 

Prevention and Exclusion


Diarrhoea and vomiting

Guidance on infection control

Notifiable Diseases

Notifiable diseases

Other useful guidance

Other ongoing outbreaks


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